Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Commercial debate Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Commercial debate - Essay Example In such a case, the agent himself will be held to be liable to the third party for a breach of an implied representation of authority. Moreover, a breach of such a kind would exempt the agent from claiming any reimbursements of expenses incurred in the line of duty or his own service associated charges. Where an agent purports to act in a way not expressly stated by the principle, his duties are considered in light of any implied authority awarded by the principle. Hence, an agent who engages in a contract for the supply of goods for the principle will be impliedly allowed to sign documents of payment and title for the principle (Rosenbaum v Belson (1900) 2 Ch 267). However, the concept of implied actual authority is applied cautiously by the courts in interpreting agreements and the act done by the agent must truly be incidental to his tasks. Thus, factors such as the course of dealings which are widely accepted in the line of business between the agent and principle (Nickalls v Mer ry (1875) LR 7 HL 802)), his occupation and profession, and the test of usual authority all apply to the determination of the agent’s scope of authority. However, there are cases where the extent of the authority of the agent is overridden by the third party’s reliance on his representation. The presence of this ostensible authority is what is essentially made available to the third party, as in practice the third party would rarely ever get to see the terms of the actual contract between agent and principle. Thus, given that he relies on the apparent authority of the agent (which includes knowledge of the agency, knowledge of the presence of a principle, and reliance on the representation of the principle (see The Tatra (1990)), the agency will operate by virtue of the Equity principle of estoppel, enabling the principle to be bound to the third party even if the agent acts outside the authority awarded to him by contract so long as the agent acted within the authorit y represented by the principle to the third party. This has the ability to negate the consent of the principle as the agent may very well be acting outside the authority granted to him by express or implied actual authority, and exists solely in favor of the third party (Freeman and Lockyer v Buckhurst Park Properties (Mangal) Ltd (1964)) who has altered his position in reliance on the representation of the agent. Equity in this case creates an agency by estoppel binding the principle to the contract with the third party. Thus, it follows that to establish apparent authority all which is required is a representation by the principle of appointing the agent as his representative agent and the third party to rely on that representation to his detriment. No further allusion is required by the principle, so much so that the representation may even be made by silence (Spiro v Lintern (1973)), along with the third party knowing or possessing some knowledge of his capacity as agent of the principle. This is one case where the agency is created without strict adherence to the consideration of the actual extent of the aut

Monday, October 28, 2019

Skills Audit Preferred learning style and SWOT analysis

Skills Audit Preferred learning style and SWOT analysis Skills audit is something which talks about your current skills opposing the skills you need in the future which will play an important role in your career. Skill audit helps you in determining your current skills, and diagnose what skills you need to accomplish your task which helps you to plan more effectively, and improve skills and knowledge in order to be a successful person in the future. Implementing these skills audit are as follows: The first thing you can do is to write down your existing skills and try to analyze what skills you will be needing in your future career which will helps you to plan and a leading dealer of the consequences. Try to analyze what skills are important for your current task. The second priority is to list the skills and knowledge which helps you in your future career, which will also make impeccable your future planning. Once you have completed your list you need to compare which skills are important and rate them accordingly. Determine your strong and lacking areas of skills where you need to work out. Ask your friend or your instructor to retrospect your list and evaluate at which level you are standing. Make Sure that the evaluator should be honest and who would easily tell your truth without being afraid. The last thing is to do develop your own strategy which will easily execute your plan and makes your strategy successful and fill the gaps of lacking areas. We have many strategies and different learning styles in which we feel comfortable we will apply that methodology. Some people emphasize more on soft skills they have that is also called communication skills. Soft skills help you in dealing with people at your work and people around you. People with good communication skills help in resolving the problem occur in the organization and in the personal life. And it may be help you in managing your task. SWOT ANALYSIS: The most important phenomena of living my life in an effective and peaceful manner is always be honest whatever you do be persistent and be delegated towards my work. These techniques would help me in achieving my targets and helps me in recognizing my strengths and opportunities and eradicate my weaknesses and threats around me. STRENGTHS: My communication skills helped me a lot and I have found new ways to deal with people. My delegation towards my work is really high that people always trust me and that is how I have good reputation among good people. The reason I am passionate about achieving my goal is because I am the person who possessed aim and I want to transmute my dreams into actualities. I am inspired by many leaders who possessed the good reputation in the past, and highly delegated towards their goals. OPPORTUNITIES: I always grab opportunities that can enhance my capabilities of learning something new and which will give a chance to find out new ways to deal with difficulties. I give my best when my team stands as one and cooperate with each other without any interruption. I always make people feel comfortable whatever the circumstances are I always give my best to deal with them. WEAKNESSESS: An emotional stability is one of my weaknesses that always infringe me in achieving my goals. The lack in emotional stability sometimes results in term of anger, which is hard for me to control. I am really looking forward to overwhelm these lacking areas. THREATS: People who damper my enthusiasm is the big threat for me. People focus more on negative aspects in my environment and try to discourage which affects my personal growth, and career. I always try to turn these threats into opportunities with the help of my communication strategies and communicate with the team and then make decisions. produce a detailed action plan which demonstrates how you intend to address areas for further management and leadership development The further management development starts from the responsibilities of manager towards achieving his task. In this fast changing and competitive environment managers need modifications in order to make new ways and strategies to cope up with the diversity occur in the organization. Responsibilities for achieving the task include the clear vision for the group that perfectly defines the direction and segregate work to keep in view the workers skills and flexibility. Determine which resources, processes, and systems are used. Develop the strategy to achieve the task, tactics, time, measurements and by understanding and delegation. Setting the benchmark is to restrict your subordinates to achieve the level that is up to the mark and gain maximum results. Entertain properly the control and maintaining activities and monitor overall performance against plan. Responsibilities as a manager for a group includes the standards and ethics to be performed in the workplace, define a proper organizational culture so your subordinates will be feeling comfortable in the environment and able to work efficiently and easily cope up with the situations. Manager should develop a team slogan to encourage his team towards the task and make them believe that they will be given their best to the task and will achieve the target. Threats which violated the organizations morale, try to turn these threats in to opportunities thats what many good managers with excellent communication skills does. The most important action plan which helps managers to manage the department includes the understanding of individual, their personalities, skills, strengths, weaknesses, needs, and capabilities and assists them in such a way that you can support individuals-plans, conflicts, and challenges they face by them. Classify every individuals objectives, and give appraisals in order to encourage them towards their tasks. Arrange career development programs to train them further because employees may need some new talent and in order to give them information about new technologies. The good leaders always have command over these main areas. First a leader believes to do the entire task no matter whatever the circumstances are, he keeps the right balance according to the situation, gets results, and strengthen the morale, quality, and develops strategies to attain maximum satisfaction. The most important function in leadership development includes planning keeping in view the appropriate information and elaborates the tasks in order to meet the standards. Commence the action and allocate the tasks with setting its standards. A good leader is proactive that supports individual and encourage team spirit and informing the tasks, plans, and schedule properly and give his feedback. Develop feasibility of plan to enable the assessment of the planned task. These all actions help leader in leading, and also includes strong emphasis by applying these techniques through training. Explain the impact of learning styles on personal development. Everyone has different learning style that is unique to the person and the way which seems interesting to him. Analyze your personal learning style by which you can give your best to the task and improve your personal life, which improves the time management also manage studies and, find new strategies to learn more. SELF-AWARENESS AND MOTIVATION Start realizing your thoughts, and be aware of your thoughts and decisions you take in order to make your life peaceful. Think position and develop healing pattern which encourage your thoughts and decision power in the position way. The more you know about yourself the better decision you will be taken. Self awareness also helps in spiritual growth when you have clear upstanding of your religion and believe you will start living accordingly. CREATE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS In order to progress in your field you must learn how to make solutions of the problems occur, and must be able to describe or investigate the problem. Diagnose the causes of the problem that affects in your personal life, develop strategies and make alternates to resolve the problem, and analyze your weak areas where you are not able to make proper decisions. And at last implement your own strategy and assess the effective and efficiency of the decision. COMMUNICATION SKILLS Convey your message in such a way that people understand them clearly and having perfect idea what are you conveying. If your conveying method is not effective you will receive ambiguous feedback that other person perceived wrong. Find new ways to learn more about communication style that you can deal effective with people around you and build a trust through your good communication and make a good relationship. PAIRED AND GROUP STYLE OF LEARING The paired and group learning style is the most effective way to learn because a person will find a new ways from other people and learn from their experience to improve their personal life. Group learning style provides you the regularity and you will get better results. The paired and group style of learning also helps you in building your confidence and overwhelm shy factor. The group discussion will not only increase your knowledge but also helps in you progressing in personal growth. The advantages of group learning are numerous which provides an opportunity to compare results and helps in making accurate interpretation regarding to the personal life and career. Assignment 2 Personal Development Planning Purpose The purpose of this assignment is to provide a framework within which the learner can: Prepare and implement a personal development plan . Scenario Your tutor has asked you to provide evidence of your own personal and professional development throughout the course of your studies for this learning programme. As professional development is an ongoing process, this assignment will not be completed until the end of the learning programme. Task 1 Produce an ongoing personal development plan and reflective record of management experience which sets out: This provides evidence for 3a Task 2 Compile a portfolio of evidence which demonstrates how you have implemented the actions in Task 1 above over a period of at least six months, and includes records of: training and/or development needs from a recent appraisal or job review action planning, diaries, learning journal feedback from a variety of sources (eg manager, colleagues, customers) This provides evidence for 3a Task 3 Write a report of between 1000-1500 words which evaluates how well the main themes of the learning programme have impacted (or could in the future) on your work role and chosen career path. You should include an analysis of your strengths and weaknesses both at the start and end of the programme, and explain the importance of self review and how this informs future professional development This provides evidence for 3b Your objectives for career and life planning. The actions you plan to take to meet these goals. Your short/medium/long term goals and objectives. The resources and support needed and available to meet objectives target dates for monitoring and review. >>>> Manager Personal Skill and Professional Skill Introduction: Developing effective management skills to deal with specific challenges and problems of each organization is the urgent needs of many businesses and organizations in the global competitive environment, rapid changing of technology and environment. The new tendency of training and development of successful organizations over the world today is developing effective skills in dealing with specific challenge of their own organization to reach their own mission and objectives in the new organization that characterized by networked, flat, flexible, diverse, global organization. Based on the research in the world and in Vietnam, and from the success of previous workshops, the Center for Excellence in Management Development (CEMD) continuously offers the workshop on Effective Management Skills to help people and organization improving their own effectiveness and efficiency. Through this workshop, participants are not only developed specific competencies in the schedule, but also improved learning skills, facilitating skills, and teamwork skills very important skills in the 21th century organizations. Participants: Managers of businesses, organizations, and people who want to develop competencies in creative problem solving, communications, conflict management, negotiation, and improving self-management and individual effectiveness to improve organizations effectiveness and efficiency. Objectives and Contents: 1. Creative Problem Solving Skills: (1) Describing and analyzing a problem, (2) Identifying causes of a problem, (3) Developing creative options and choosing the best course of action, and (4) Implementing and evaluating effective and efficiency of the decision. 2. Communication Skills: (1) Listening skills, (2) Presentation skills, (3) Feedback Skills, (4) Report witting skills. 3. Conflict Management Skills: (1) Identifying sources of conflict functional and dysfunctional conflicts, (2) Understanding personal style of conflict resolution, (3) Choosing the best strategy for dealing with a conflict, and (4) Developing skills in promoting constructive conflicts in organization and teams. 4. Negotiation Skills: (1) Distinguishing distributive and integrative negotiations, position and principled negotiation, (2) Identifying common mistakes in negotiation and ways to avoid them, (3) Developing rational thinking in negotiation, and (4) Developing effective skills in negotiation that benefits all parties involved. 5. Self-Awareness and Improvement: (1) Understanding the concept of self-management, (2) Evaluate the effectiveness of self management, (3) Developing creative and holistic thinking, (4) Understanding the importance of emotions in works as well in self-development, (5) Understand of self-motivation, and (6) Effectively managing self-learning and change. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Personal Learning Style PERSONAL LEARNING STYLE Who would have ever thought taking a college course would require one to learn how to learn?    It is a good concept we normally undergo at a very young age.    At the pre-school age one will find children learning their strength and weakness through their playtime.    As adults we almost forget we have to learn how to learn to continue growth in our workplace, school, and in life.    In our second week of online classes I learned strengths and weakness in my learning style with the aid of learning assessments, personality spectrums, and time management logs.    In this paper, I intend to describe the various components of my learning style and outline a plan to improve my time management and study skills. A big component of my learning style is hands-on experience; learning while doing.    This usually involved someone with more experience instructing me as I performed the task.    Through the hands-on approach, I picked-up the knowledge and gained proficiency >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Assignment Task 1 1 Introduction This task is about analyzing personal development plan and make strategy for development of PDP. Personal development plan (PDP) shows an evaluation of current skills and knowledge that includes individual strengths and weaknesses. As per scenario, Finance 4 U is finance and accounting based company. Managing director has lot of plans in ensuring that companys staffs fully participates in improving personal and professional skills as the company has problem with staff morale and motivation. Personal development plans needs to be discussed in this task. As Finance 4 U urgently needed a personal development plan in terms of professional and career development and assists the company in progression. 2 Objectives The objectives of this task are to identify strategy for developing a personal development plan, its importance and how plan can improve daily professional life? Characteristics of plan must also be explained such as à ¢Ã… ¾Ã‚ ¢ Objectives and goals (both short term and long term)       à ¢Ã… ¾Ã‚ ¢ Dates and time scale       à ¢Ã… ¾Ã‚ ¢ Resources       à ¢Ã… ¾Ã‚ ¢ Milestones and checkpoints (where performance should be reviewed) 3 Personal Development Plan its Importance Personal Development Planning is a structured and supported process undertaken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning, performance and/or achievement and to plan for their personal, educational and career development. The primary objective for PDP is to improve the capacity of individuals to understand what and how they are learning, and to review, plan and take responsibility for their own learning. Personal development is a field of practice and research. As a field of practice PDP includes personal development methods, assessment systems, learning programs, tools and techniques. As a field of research, personal development topics increasingly appear in higher education reviews, scientific journals, >>>> Skill Audit SKILLS AUDIT GRID We would encourage you to review this regularly and particularly before tutorials |Generic Engineering Skills:                      |Good    |Average|Poor    |Academic Study                                  |Work Experience                                  |Extra-Curricular Activity                   |Action Planning                                  | |Analysis                                                 |          |          |          |                                                       |                                                       |                                                       |                                                       | |Modelling                                                 |          |          |          |                                                       |                                                       |                                                       |                                                       | |IT                                                          |          |          |          |                                                       |                                                       |                                                       |                                                       | |Problem solving       |Project implementation                            |          |          |                                                       |                                                    |Appropriate use of laboratory and             |          |                                                       |workshop equipment                                  |                                                       |                                                       |                                     |Design                                                 >>>>>> ADVANCED PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ABSTRACT          Well as I begin I would like to remember you one point that no one can withstand in the market of an organization when the people lack certain skills and knowledge. In order to ensure for proper skills and knowledge a proper idea about the development of their skills are briefed in this report. Keeping in mind, the four skills developed in this report were time management, stress management, running meeting, and group discussion. Not only the skills but also the learning styles were discussed. What are the techniques and objectives to meet the desired characteristics? How to improve the management skills for the effective leadership? The main concept of learning is mentioned clearly in this report which may be useful in the future requirements for an organization to be effective and imaginative. CONTENTS       à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ ABSTRACT       à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ OUTCOME 1 TASK 1: METHODS TO IMPROVE PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS    1. (a) EVALUATION OF PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS TASK 2:    1. (b) IMPROVIZATION OF SUCCESSFUL MANAGER SKILLS       à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ OUTCOME 2 TASK 3: PERSONAL SKILLS AUDITS 1.2 (a) PREFERRED LEARNING STYLE FOCUSSING ON THE SKILLS REQUIRED FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP       à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ OUTCOME 3 TASK 4: PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1.3 (a) DETAILED PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN TASK 5: 1.3 (b) MONITORING FEEDBACKS AND ADJUSTMENTS TASK 6: 1.3 (c) IMPACTS OF LEARNING AND UTILIZING IN THE FUTURE       à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ CONCLUSION       à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ BIBLIOGRAPHY OUTCOME 1 TASK 1: METHODS TO IMPROVE PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL SKILLS       à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Communication, communication, communicationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦!!! This is an important method to improve both personal and professional skills. This is the first factor required to develop in any organization.       à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Developing the necessary business ethics and corporate social responsibility. This development of the workshop helps in understanding the ethical behavior and participants >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Personal Learning Styles Personal Learning Style Byron Taylor University of Phoenix Gen/101 Skills for Lifelong Learning Group ID #ONO61CS04 Daigre Victorine, Phd May 11, 2006 In the course of writing this paper I have learned a great deal about the styles of learning and how to incorporate personality traits into effectual learning principles. This paper will consist of an analogy of the components of my learning style to the facets of my personality. This will aid in strategically creating a plan to use in improving my time management and study skills. Components of learning style       I believe that my personal learning style, as do most people, encompasses many traits that extend far beyond categories and agree that these are tools to assist an individual in understanding capabilities, rather than give a definition of what type of person learns under different situations.    For instance, according to my scores in The Pathways to Learning Assessment, I am highly developed in Musical and Interpersonal learning and underdeveloped in the concepts of the Visual-Spatial and Naturalistic learner.    The fact is while I am very musically inclined, I have never created rhythms out of words, beat out rhythms with my hand, written a rap, changed materials to songs I already know, or used music while studying.    On the other hand, I realize that using some components of the Musical-Rhythmic learner I might be able to develop an additional style of studying, by evaluating the effectiveness of those components.       The components of an Interpersonal learner are traits that seem aligned with how I believe I would best learn.    When I was in sigh school, I thrived in the classes which were interactive in nature, as opposed to lecture driven.    I rarely understood the need for slide shows or other visual aids and often felt they had little bearing on the subject even though some of my classmates seemed to believe they helped them immensely. So if a category that fit most of what >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Personal Learning Styles Personal Learning Styles University of Phoenix Everyone learns differently.    This is something that we all discover at a young age.    Some of us absorb information from a Professors lecture very easily, while others will need to go back and read or recite this same information.    Everyone has a learning style that is unique to them, developed over time by their own learning experiences.    By examining our personal learning style, we are able to gain valuable insight on how we learn best, which allows us then to convert study material from its offered format into one that is more palatable for us as individuals.    After a thorough assessment, I have developed a detailed understanding of my own learning style and personality, as well as a strategic plan to improve my time management and study skills. Especially as children, we all have our favorite subjects in school.    Typically, we simply choose subjects we have a natural aptitude for as our favorites we enjoy things better when they come easy to us.    My favorite subjects in school were always math and science related; subjects where everything made logical sense.    I learn best when I can bring logical order to the information presented to me.    Not surprisingly, I also learn best when working on my own, so that I am able to organize my thoughts in a logical manner. After completing the Pathways to Learning1 assessment, I discovered, somewhat unsurprisingly, that I am most strongly developed in the Logical-Mathematical and Intrapersonal intelligences.    I then completed the Personality Spectrum1 and learned that my personality type is that of a Thinker. The results I received from these two assessments complement each other well.    I discovered that while I learn best through problem solving, my best study practices are to study in a quiet place, organize material logically (when possible writing outlines or developing charts and graphs), read text and highlight important points, write or rewrite >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> My Personal Learning Styles Like most people, I can definitely say there have been times in my life when learning was a chore. I can remember looking at the clock on the wall watching the second hand tick away while feverishly tried to grasp the material before me. On the other hand, I can clearly recall times when I was eager to learn. I looked forward to the experience, almost counting the hours until my next opportunity to dive into the scheduled material. As the years have passed from my early days of learning until now, I have realized there is a key word that defines my learning style: scheduled. I am a schedule person. From as far back as I can remember, I have always envied the organized person. The one who had a schedule for everything. The one who knew everything and knew where to go to get what they did not readily possess. I have studied temperament types and learning styles in great detail, primarily trying to find new ways of understanding others and myself. At one point, I took the Strong Interest Inventory Test to try to find out my personal learning style. In an interpretive report following the testing, Allen Hammer and Judith Grutter explained: Your score on the Learning Environment scale suggests that you are interested in applied or practical problems. You may be most interested in short-term training that can teach you practical skills that will help you prepare for a particular job. You probably learn best in settings where you can learn by experience, not through books or lectures (11). The Skills for Professional Development textbook provided four distinct tests to help me define my learning style even further. Test 1: Peak and Valley Learning Times (University of Phoenix 74), confirmed to me that I learn best in the early morning hours. Early morning is definitely a peak learning time for me. I can frequently be found early in the morning with a book and a cup of coffee. I wake up and my brain seems to be already engaged. Saturday mornings afford me the Criteria reference To achieve the criteria the evidence must show that the learner is able to: Task No Page numbers 1 evaluate the personal and professional skills required to meet both organisational and own goals and objectives evaluate more effective ways to learn in the future 2 undertake a personal skills audit, identifying preferred learning style, which focuses on the skills required for effective management and leadership 3 produce a detailed personal development plan evaluate and review the effectiveness and impact of your learning

Friday, October 25, 2019

Mastery by Robert Greene: The Steps to Mastery Essay -- creative task,

I am pursuing a Masters degree in Instructional Design and Technology. With this degree, I hope to gain the skills to help revolutionize education with the use of technology. In 1907 Maria Montessori, embarked on such a journey (American Montessori Society, 2013). She was invited to open a center for children living in the poor, inner-city of Rome (American Montessori Society, 2013). While working there, Maria began using approaches to educate the children that would find great success and become world-renown. Because Maria Montessori revolutionized education in a way that I hope to do, I chose her as the focus of my hero in Mastery research paper. In chapter five of his book, Mastery, Robert Greene (2012) outlines the way to find mastery. The first step to mastery is The Creative Path (Greene, 2012 p. 179). Greene states that becoming a master will not occur if you are easily swayed by setbacks or desire a life full of ease and comfort (Green, 2012 p. 179). When pursuing a creative endeavor one must pursue it with their whole being. Maria Montessori was able to achieve mastery despite the obstacles she faced. Montessori grew up in Italy and from an early age showed an interest in reading and academics, which differed from most females of her time (Adams, 1969, p. 49). Maria attended the University of Rome, much to the disdain of her father and the university, and in 1896 she became the first woman in Italy to graduate with a Doctor of Medicine degree. (Adams, 1969, p. 49; Solan, H. A. (2007) p. 61). Like a true master, Montessori did not stop pursuing knowledge in her field. Shortly after graduation she was introduced to a na rrower field of medicine and in 1897 returned to the University of Rome to study pedagogy and education... ...hrough: their development of The Current – his through his experiments with amputee patients and hers through her experiments educating children with disabilities; their study of anomalies – his study of phantom limb syndrome and her study of the education process for the mentally and physically disabled; and they both searched for the great yield – him through evidence of his simple experiments and her through evidence from the Casa dei Bambini. Works Cited Adams, Anne H. (1969, September). Maria montessori: a vignette. Education. p. 49. American Montessori Society. (2013) Maria montessori (biography of). Retrieved from Greene, R. (2012). Mastery. New York: Viking. Solan, H. A. (2007). Maria montessori: a biography. Optometry & Vision Development, 38(2), 61.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Performance appraisal system of milma Essay

1.1Introduction to the study In the business world. Investment is made in machinery, equipments and services. Quite naturally time and money is spent ensuring that they provide what their suppliers claim. In other words, the performance is constantly appraised against the results expected. When it comes to one of the most expensive resources companies invest in, namely people, the job appraising performance against results is often carried out with the same objectivity. Each individual has a role to play and management has to ensure that individuals objective translate to overall corporate objective of the organization. The process of HRD helps the employees to acquire and or develop technical, managerial and behavioral knowledge, skills and abilities and moulds the values, beliefs and attitudes necessary to perform present and future roles. The process of performance appraisal helps the employee and the management to know the level of employee’s performance compared to the standard/ pre- determined level. Performance appraisal is essential to understand and improve the employee’s performance through HRD. It was viewed that performance appraisal was useful to decide upon employee promotion/transfer, salary determination. However, the recent developments in human resource management indicate that performance appraisal is the basis for employee development. Human Resource (or personnel) management, in the sense of getting things done through people, is an essential part of every manager’s responsibility, but many organizations find it advantageous to establish a specialist division to provide an expert service dedicated to ensuring that the human resource function is performed efficiently. â€Å"People are our most valuable asset† is a clichà ©, which no member of any senior management team would disagree with. Yet, the reality for many organizations is that their people remain undervalued, under trained and underutilized. Performance Appraisal is the process of assessing the performance and progress of an employee or a group of employees on a given job and his /  their potential for future development. It consists of all formal procedures used in the working organizations to evaluate personalities, contributions and potentials of employees. HRM practices mostly depend upon strategy adapted by the company. Similarly, performance appraisal practices also depend on the strategy. Traditional technique of performance appraisal is appropriate for the stability and sustainable growth strategy. Similarly, appraisal by superior is appropriate for these strategies. Modern performance appraisal technique is sustainable for growth strategies like expansion, diversification, joint venture, merger and acquisitions. These strategies helps the company to meet competition, built competencies, acquire strength, enhance market share, innovate and create new, market, new product and new technologies. Performance appraisal was formerly used for the purpose of evaluating the employee’s performance and controlling the performance against the set standard. This technique was used to control the employee ignoring the human aspect. However, with the emergence of human resource concept, organizations are using this technique to analyze employee’s performance and to further improve or develop it. Thus, this technique is used as an enabling and motivating tool to improve the performance. 1.3 RESEARCH PROBLEM The problem selected for research is to make an in depth study of performance appraisal system of MILMA at THRISSUR. Performance appraised is the systematic description of an employee’s job relevant strength and weakness. It is aimed at knowing how the employees feel about the system that is prevailing in the firm, their suggestions if any for making system effective and to know whether it satisfies the need of company and employee. Thus the main problem behind is to make the performance appraisal an effective tool to improve employees work level and their productivity 1.4 TITTLE OF STUDY The study entitled â€Å" a study on performance appraisal system at supervisory level of Milma in Thrissur 1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY In every business organization, the most important asset is its employees in  all level. The performance appraisal is a systematic process consisting of number of steps to be followed for evaluating an employee’s strength and weakness. It is a systematic and objective description of an employee’s strength and weakness in terms of job. The appraisal is continuous and ongoing process where the evaluation is arranged periodically according to definite plan. This study would provide valuable suggestion to management. The presented study related to the survey including the office staff of various departments. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Performance appraisal have been considered as the most significance as indispensible tool for an organization. For an organization, information it provides is highly useful in making decisions regarding various personnel aspect such as promotion and merit increases. Performance measure also link information gathering and decision making processes, which provides a basis for judging the effectiveness of personnel sub divisions such as recruiting, selection, training and compensation. Accurate information plays a vital role in the organization as a whole. They help in finding out weakness in the primary area. Formal performance appraisal plans are designed to meet three needs of the organization and other two of individual namely: They provide systematic judgments to back up salary increase, transfers demotion or termination They are the means of telling a subordinate how he is doing and suggesting needed change in his behavior attitude skill or job knowledge. They let him know where h e stands. Superior uses them as basis for coaching and counseling the individual 1.6 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY To study the performance appraisal system in MILMA DIARY THRISSUR To know the employees awareness of performance appraisal system To know the satisfaction level of employees with current performance appraisal system To suggest measures for improving current system 1.7 RESAERCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN Research design gives the outline of a research work that involves planning  for data and analyzing the collected data. The research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted. There are 2 type of research design Exploratory research designs Conclusive research design Descriptive research design Causal research design Tools and techniques The tools and technique involve various accounting technique and statistical tools like percentage, which are used as a device to analyze and interpret the performance appraisal of Milma. Graphs, tables figures, pie and bar diagram are used as it helps in presenting facts and figures in simple and easy way so as to get a clear idea. DATA COLLECTION Primary data Secondary data Primary data: the primary data was collected through personal interview and questionnaire given to the staff at supervisory level. Each individual employee in the sample was separately interviewed and asked to fill the questionnaire Secondary data: Data, which are not originally collected but rather obtained from published or unpublished. Secondary data used in study are project reports and records. Questionnaire Construction Questionnaires were constructed based on the following types: †¢ Open ended questions †¢ Close ended questions †¢ Multiple choice questions Sampling method Survey is used as a sampling method. Out of total employees, 50 employees are selected as samples. And data was collected through questionnaire method. FIELD OF STUDY: Milma at Thrissur DURATION OF STUDY: Three week 1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY: Employees were reluctant to reveal their problem freely before students Personal bias and prejudice of the respondent could have affected the result of study Most of the respondents seem to be very busy with their jobs and are not interested in answering the questionnaire CHAPTER – II PROFILES 2.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE MILK INDUSTRY Milk and milk based industries plays an important role in the world. Internationalization remains a key focus for almost all of the world’s leading dairy farm. The entire world’s largest dairy farm operates in more than one country and some of them are truly international with the activities in every part of the world. The availability of milk and milk product, in the modern world is blend of the centuries old knowledge of traditional milk product with the application of modern science and technology. Diary is a place where handling of milk and milk product is done. WORLD SCENARIO HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL DIARY FEDERATION The internal diary federation, with its head quarter brissels, was established in 1903 and consists of 32 member countries throughout the  world. UNICEF has been the motivating force for establishing diary industry in many under developed countries. One of these in India, where large processing plant have been set up to process locally produced milk or to reconstitute milk from donated or purchased milk fat and powder. Domestic milk production has increased in India and a part of the pasteurized milk is provided free to children in the larger cities through UNICEF. The first co-operative artificial breeding association was organized in Denmark in 1936. There are now many such association which helped the diary industries. After 1950, diary industry faced a wide range of development throughout the world. INDIAN SCENARIO ORIGIN OF THE INDUSTRY Indian diary sector has come a long way during the past independence era of acute milk shortage and depended on foreign aid in the form of milk powder to meet the growing milk demand. India’s milk production in 1950-1951 was low as million tones. The diary sector in India has shown remarkable development in past decades and India has shown now become one of the largest producer of milk and the value added milk product in the world. Today Company has emerged as the second largest milk producer in the world currently there are over 275 diary plants and 83 milk products factories in co-operative, public and private sector. The world famous ‘Anand Milk Union Limited’ popularly known as Amul was established in 1946 and the National Dairy Development Board was set up in 1965. Kerala Cooperative Marketing Milk Federation (KCMMF) popularly known as Milma was established in April 1980. Diary co-operative accounts major share of processed liquid milk marketed in the country. Milk is processed and marketed by 170 milk producers’ co-operative unions, which federated into 15 state Co-operative milk marketing federation. By the end of the third phase of operation flood programme about 72700 dairy co-operative societies with 93 million farmer member where organization. The company has at present one lakh organized primary village diary co-operative with an aggregate membership of 1.1 crore producers. The co-operative milk procurement crossed 20-millon kg/day in 2004-05. Over the years, brand created by cooperatives have become synonymous with quality and value. In Kerala there are 3243 dairy  co-operative includding2404 Anand pattern society functioning under KCMMF. Milam represents more than 7.63 lakh diary framers who have organized 2404 Anand pattern diary cooperative diary societies. It also represents 10 diaries, handling 9.96 lakh liters milk/ day chilling plant, 2 cattle plant, a milk powder plant, an established training center and 5000 distribution outlets. OPERATION FLOOD The dairy program called operation flood was launched in 1970 under the aegis of NDDB. NDDB. Functional as technical consultant and the rest while Indian diary co-operation as the funding agency as the ideology followed by the operation flood was the remuneration linking of rural milk producing centered with the demand centers so as to build up a viable dairy industry. STATE SCENARIO OPERATION FLOOD IN KERALA The operation flood in Kerala was included in the second phase of operation flood (1981-87) the 8th southern district from Trivandrum to Thrissur were included in the area of the project which has a total outlay of Rs. 99 crores. The uncovered northern area from Palakad to Kasargod was thus brought under the co-operative umbrella with the inspection of north Kerala Dairy Project. KERALA CO-OPERATIVE MILK MARKETING FEDERATION LIMITED (KCMMF) The Kerala Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (KCMMF) popularly called ‘Milma’ was established in April 1980 as a part of operation flood 2nd program, with head office at Thiruvananthapuram. It was started under the indo Swiss project. The project was launched in 1963 based on a bilateral agreement execute between the Swiss Confederation and the Government of India. The project was made great strides in the improvement of livestock farming in the state. One of them is the development of Swiss brown a cross bread suited for the state condition. The project is now Kerala livestock board. Its main motive was to implement the operation flood program started by NDDB in Kerala. KCMMF has played a major role in the development of dairying in the state. It has a strong presence in the market. With an  ever-increasing demand for the entire product manufactured by KCMMF, it is necessary that efforts be taken to fill in the gaps arising out of inadequate supply. The KCMMF is a three-tier system with the primary milk co-operative societies at village level, regional milk producers union at middle level and an apex body at the state level. At present there are three regional co-operative unions operating. They are: 1. Trivandrum regional Co-operative Milk Producers Union limited (TRCMPU) 2. Ernakulum Regional Co-operative Milk Producers Union Limited (ERCMPU) 3. Malabar Regional Co-operative Milk Marketing Producers Union Limited (MRCMPU) 2.2 ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE Brand household name, ‘MILMA’ stands for milk and a whole variety of milk products, which enjoy the confidence of each Keralite, for their unmatched quality and standard. The name also signifies the vast organization Kerala Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (KCMMF) with it units of procurement, processing and sale spread over all the villages and towns of the state, giving employment and prosperity to a large number of small and marginal farmers including women and the landless, processing employees and sellers. KCMMF was established in 1980 with its Head Office at Thiruvananthapuram for the successful implementation of the dairy programme ‘Operation Flood’ under NDDB. Over the years, MILMA has developed a long-term health perspective about the people of the state, who suffer from life style diseases including diabetes and obesity, albeit economic prosperity. So, MILMA has attuned its products to ensure balanced nutrition as well as reduced cost of healthcare and also launched new beverages other than milk products. Founded because of the great democratic principle ‘of the People, by the People and for the People’, the dominant concern of MILMA is to render true service to society while ensuring that it does not incur losses. Organizational study is conducted in the Kerala Co-operative milk marketing federation popularly known as Milma at Thrissur diary is under the control of ERCMPU ltd Edapilly. This regional union was registered 12/09/1985 and is an ISO: 9001:2000 certified company. The company aims in the socio-economic progress of dairy farmer by procuring  their milk at most remunerative price around the year and by ensuring consumer Satisfaction through prompt satisfaction of prompt supply of pasteurized milk products. Now 142 APCOS are functioning and milk from these societies are collected twice per day by diary around the year. By providing input facilities such as veterinary services, cattle feed supply, insemination facilities, support for folder department activities and manpower training on scientific aspect of clean milk providing to dairy farmers. The capacity of Thrissur plant is 60000liter/day. Every day they procure 34000-liter milk from primary society twice per day by milk routs. In this unit, they produce ghee, buttermilk and milk. Thrissur dairy have seven departments. Among this, one is handled directly from the head office. The departments are Procurement and input section Marketing Engineering Quality control Production Accounts Procurement and administration For procuring milk from primary society, vehicles are used on basis of contract with the owners. Three-tier system is followed for this purpose. If any one of them could not meet the requirement, then it is given to the third party. In each department one assistant manager is been appointed. The name Milma represents 2568 primary milk co-operative societies 7.5 lakh farmer members 3 regional co-operative milk producers union 11 dairies capable of handling 9- 90 lakh liters of milk per day 13 milk chilling centers 2 cattle feed plant with cumulative capacity of 600 MT per day One milk powder plant of 10 MT/ day A well established training centers 5200 retail outlets Over 32000 people working directly or indirectly for the functions of Milma  apart from these Milma serve millions of consumer day in and day out. OBJECTIVES To channelize marketable surplus milk from rural area to urban deficit area to maximize the return to the producer and provide quality milk and milk products to the consumer. To carry out activities for promoting production, procurement, processing and marketing of milk and milk products for the economic development of farming community To build up a viable diary industry in the state To provide constant market and stable price to the diary farmers for their producers. MILMA NETWORKS The motto of co-operative â€Å"of the people, by the people, and for the people† is the three-tier structure followed by the organization. At the village level, they have the village milk co-operatives societies, which have the local milk producers as its members. The village co-operative unit at the regional level form regional co-operative milk producer unions. These unions are federated at the state level to form state federated namely Kerala Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (KCMMF). MILMA’S ASSOCIATES Milma is in constant touch with other organization in this sector. It is namely through this tremendous change that Milam grew from a small diary co-operative to the position it holds today. CHIEF ASSOCIATES ARE: National diary development board NDDB under Dr. Kurien’s guidance set up KCMMF in 1980. Ever since they, there has been a very close co-operation between NDDB and the federation. NDDB are the originator of the operation flood programme and have been funding agent for the operation flood project in Kerala. AMUL The diary co-operative of Gujarat have been the inspiration of the  development of such a vast network of diary co-operative in Kerala. Among the co-operative in Gujarat, the kaira district co-operative milk producer union (AMUL) is the first in this sector. Its cooperative is called â€Å"Anand Pattern Co-operative Societies† following the illustrious lineage of AMUL. GOVERNMENT OF KERALA The phenomenal success of dairy co-operatives in Kerala could not have been achieved without the foundation of animal husbandry activities, led by animal husbandry department and Kerala livestock department development board of the government of Kerala. ORGANISATIONAL CHART DIARY MANAGER P & A P& I ACCOUNTS MARKETING ENGINEERING PRODUCTION QUALITY CONTROL Junior Assistant A/c officer Assistant Technical TS dairy Dairy Supervisor PO Marketing Supervisor Chemist Officer Junior Senior Junior Marketing Junior Plant Lab Assistant Supervisor Supervisor Organizer Assistant Operator Technician Junior Junior Marketing Technician Plant attender Lab Supervisor Assistant Assistant Assistant Attender Attender FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF KCMMF KCMMF HEAD OFFICE Provides staff management functions to support its units and regional milk unions. KCMMF head office has a well established marketing, quality control, production , finance, HRD. MARKETING Brand management Lean flush management Bulk trading of surplus products Institutional supply contracts Co-ordinate promotional activities Packaging and product development Procurement and consumer pricing PURCHASE Centralized purchase of dairy consumables. Purchase of raw materials for cattle feed plants Purchase function of KCMMF head office QUALITY CONTROL Render technical and legal assistance to primary dairy co-operatives and regional milk unions. Liaison and maintain quality of milk and milk products as per the standards Liaison with statutory authorities for bringing in suitable amendments in statutes Attend to consumer complaints on quality problem FINANCE Financial management of KCMMF and its units. Liaison with financial institutions for availing loan for creation of infrastructure. Liaison with government for availing government financial assistance Long term repayment and scheduling of loans Capital management scheme for primary co-operative societies. Recommend remunerations of APCOS employees. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELPOEMENT Milma family has 2098 skilled, efficient and qualified personnel and has an excellent labour relationship. Take active role in farming personnel policies and service rules. Finalize long-term wage settlement, bonus etc. CHAPTER III LITERATURE REVIEW LITERATURE REVIEW Rationale of performance appraisal Performance appraisals are one of the most important requirements for successful business and human resource policy (Kressler, 2003). Rewarding and promoting effective performance in organizations, as well as identifying ineffective performers for developmental programs or other personnel actions are essential to effective to human resource management (Pulakos, 2003). The ability to conduct performance appraisals relies on the ability to assess an employee’s performance in a fair and accurate manner. Evaluating employee performance is a difficult task. . Once the supervisor understands the nature of the job and the sources of information, the information needs to be collected in a systematic way, provided as feedback, and integrated into the organization’s performance management process for use in making compensation, job placement, and training decisions and assignments (London, 2003). After a review of literature, a performance appraisal model will be described in detail. The model discussed is an example of a performance appraisal system that can be implemented in a large institution of higher education, within the Student Affairs division. The model can be applied to tope level, middle-level and lower level employees. Evaluation instruments (forms) are provided to assist you with implementation the appraisal system. Introduction to performance appraisal Performance evaluations have been conducted since the times of Aristotle (Landy, Zedeck, Cleveland, 1983). The earliest formal employee performance evaluation program is thought to have originated in the United States military establishment shortly after the birth of the republic (Lopez, 1968). The measurement of an employee’s performance allows for rational administrative decisions at the individual employee level. It also provides for the raw data for the evaluation of the effectiveness of such personnel- system components and processes as recruiting policies, training programs, selection rules, promotional strategies, and reward allocations (Landy, Zedeck, Cleveland, 1983). In addition, it provides the foundation for behaviorally based employee counseling. In the counseling setting, performance information provides the vehicle for increasing satisfaction, commitment, and motivation of the employee. Performance measurement allows the organization to tell the employee something about their rates of growth, their competencies, and their potentials. There is little disagreement that if well done, performance measurements and feedback can play a valuable role in effecting the grand compromise between the needs of the individual and the needs of the organization (Landy, Zedeck, Cleveland, 1983). Performance appraisals should focus on three objectives: Purpose of performance appraisal system Performance, not personalities; valid, concrete, relevant issues, rather than subjective emotions and feelings; reaching agreement on what the employee is going to improve in his performance and what you are going to do (McKirchy, 1998). Both the supervisor and employee should recognize that a strong relationship exists between training and performance evaluation (Barr, 1993). Each employee should be allowed to participate in periodic sessions to review performance and clarify expectations. Both the supervisor and the employee should recognize these sessions as constructive occasions for two-way communication. Sessions should be scheduled ahead of time in a comfortable setting and should include opportunities for self-assessment as well as supervisor feedback. These sessions will be particularly important for new employees who will benefit from early identification of performance problems. Once these observations have been shared, the supervisor and employee should develop a mutual understanding about areas for improvement,  problems that need to be corrected, and additional responsibilities that might be undertaken. When the goals are identified, a plan for their achievement should be developed. The plan may call for resources or support from other staff members in order to meet desired outcomes. In some cases, the plan might involve additional training. The supervisor should keep in contact with the employee to assure the training experiences are producing desired impact (Barr, 1993). A portion of the process should be devoted to an examination of potential opportunities to pursue advancement of acceptance of more complex responsibilities. The employee development goals should be recognized as legitimate, and plans should be made to re ach the goals through developmental experiences or education (Barr, 1993). Encouraging development is not only a supervisor’s professional responsibility, but it also motivates an employee to pursue additional commitments. In addition, the pursuit of these objectives will also improve the prospect that current employees will be qualified as candidates when positions become available. This approach not only motivates current performance but also assists the recruitment of current employees as qualified candidates for future positions (Barr, 1993). How to arrive? Reasons why need to be done Benefits of productive performance appraisals. – Employee learns of his or her own strengths in addition to weaknesses. – New goals and objectives are agreed upon. – Employee is an active participant in the evaluation process. – The relationship between supervisor and employees is taken to an adult-to-adult level. – Work teams may be restructured for maximum efficiency. – Employee renews his or her interest in being a part o f the organization now and in the future. – Training needs are identified. – Time is devoted to discussing quality of work without regard to money issues. – Supervisor becomes more comfortable in reviewing the performance of employees. – Employees feel that they are taken seriously as individuals and that the supervisor is truly concerned about their needs and goals. (Randi, Toler, Sachs, 1992). Pitfalls to Avoid performance appraisal When conducting performance appraisals on any level, it is important to keep in mind the common pitfalls to avoid. These pitfalls may include but are not limited to : 1. Bias/prejudice. Race, religion, education, family background, age and/or sex. 2. Trait assessment. Too much attention to characteristics that have nothing to do with job and are difficult to measure. 3. Over-emphasis on favorable or unfavorable performance of one or two task, which could lead to an unbalanced evaluation of the overall contribution. 4. Relying on impression rather than on facts. 5. Holding the employees responsible for factors beyond his/her control. 6. Failure to provide each employee with an opportunity for advance preparation (Maddux 1993 LEGAL IMPLICATIONS Any performance appraisal system used to make employment decisions about a member of a protected class (i.e. Based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin) must be a valid system (an accurate measure of performance associated with job requirements). Otherwise, it can be challenged in the courts based on Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the Civil Rights Act of 1991 and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1975 (London, 2003). Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection 1978 is the controlling federal law in the area of performance appraisals. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) requires that any measurement used to differentiate between employees must be valid and fairly administered. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) suggests that performance appraisals for people with disabilities for people with disabilities will not be conducted any differently than those for other employees. Another important aspect to consider is the employee’s right to privacy. Employees must have complete access to their personnel files, but others should have controlled access. The records should be accurate, relevant, and current. Rewards Effective reward systems are often hard to establish when creating performance appraisals. The question of how specific the reward, when the  reward should be given, and how to reward group efforts can be a tricky subject to master. Our advice on this is to keep it simple. It is important to have an established reward system. However, rewards can be as simple as more autonomy on the job, praise for progress, additional professional development funding, and vacation time. The important aspect to remember when establishing reward systems is to be consistent. If two employees are being evaluated in the same way, their reward opportunities should reflect their evaluation outcomes. THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Meaning Performance appraisal system is a method of evaluating the behavior of employees in the work spot normally including both the qualitative and quantitative and qualitative aspect of job performance. Performance here refers to the degree of accomplishment of the task that makes up an individual’s job. It indicates how well an individual is fulfilling the job demand. Some of the important features of performance appraisal may be captured thus Performance appraisal is the systematic description of employee’s job relevant strength and weakness. The basic purpose is to find out how well the employee is performing the job and establish a plan of improvement Appraisals are arranged periodically according to a definite plan. Performance appraisal is not job evaluation. Performance appraisal refers to how well someone is doing the assigned job. Job evaluation determines how much a job is worth to the organization and therefore what range of pay should be assigned to the job. Performance appraisal is a continuous process in every large-scale organization. NEED FOR PEORFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisal is needed in order to: Provide information about the performance ranks basing on which decision regarding salary fixation, confirmation, promotion, transfer and demotion are taken. Provide feedback information about the level of achievement and behavior of subordinate. The information helps to review the performance of subordinates, rectifying performance deficiencies and to set new standards of work, if necessary. Provide information, which helps to counsel the  subordinates. To prevent grievances and in disciplinary activities. WHO WILL APPRAISE 360-degree performance appraisal: the appraiser may be any person who has thorough knowledge about the job content, contents to be appraised standards of content, and who observers the employee while performing a job. Typical appraisers are supervisors, peers, subordinates, employees themselves, user of service Consultant. Performance appraised by all these parties is called 360-degree performance appraisal. Supervisors include superiors of the employee, other supervisors having knowledge about the work of the employee and department head or manager. General practice is that immediate superiors appraise the performance, which in turn is reviewed by the departmental head/manager. This is because supervisors are responsible for managing their subordinates and they have the opportunity to observe, direct and control the subordinates continuously. On the negative side, immediate supervisors may emphasize certain aspect of employee performance to the neglect of others. In addition, managers, have been manipulate evaluation to justify their decision on pay increase and promotions. Peers appraisal may be reliable if the work group is stable over a reasonably long period and performs tasks that require interaction. However, little research has been conducted to determine how peers establish standard for evaluating others or the overall effect of peer appraisal on the group’s attitude. Subordinates: the concept of having superior rated by subordinates is being used in most of the organizations especially in developed countries. Such a  navel method can be useful in other organizational setting too provided the relationship between superior and subordinates are cordial. Subordinates rating in such cases can be quite useful in identifying competent superiors. Self-appraisal: if individuals understand the objective they are expected and the standards by which they are to be evaluated, they are largely in the best position to appraise their own performance. In addition, since employee development means self-development, employees who appraise their own performance may become highly motivated. User of services, customers: The customers or user of services can better judge Employee’s performance in service organization relating to behavior, promptness, speed in doing the job and accuracy. Consultant: sometimes consultant may be engaged for appraisal when employees or employer do not trust supervisor appraisal and management does not trust self appraisal or peer appraisal or subordinates appraisal. In this situation, consultants are trained and they observe the employee at work for sufficiently long time for the purpose of appraisal. METHODS OF PERFORMNACE APPRASIAL With the evolution and development of appraisal system a number of methods and techniques of performance appraisal have been developed. Some of them are TRAIT METHOD Trait method to performance appraisal measures the extent to which employees possess trait or characteristics like dependability, creativity, initiative, dynamism, ability to motivate and leadership. Trait method is based on job description and job specification. Graphic rating scale: graphic rating scale compares individual performance to absolute standards. In this method, judgments about performance are recorded on a scale. This is oldest and widely used technique. One of reason for the popularity of the rating scale is its simplicity, which permits many employees to be quickly evaluated. Such scales have relatively low design cost and high in case of administration. The major drawback to these is their subjectivity and low reliability Ranking method: Under this method, employees are ranked from  best to worst on some characteristics. The rater first finds the employee with the highest performance and the employee with the lowest performance in that particular job category and rates the former as best and the later as the poorest. One important limitation of the ranking method is that the size of the difference between individual is not well defined. Paired comparison method: this method is relatively simple. Under this method, appraiser ranks the employee by comparing one employee with all other employees in the group, one at a time. Forced distribution method: forced distribution method is developed to prevent the rater from rating too high or too low. Under this method, the rater after assigning points to the performance of each employee has to distribute his rating in a pattern to confirm to normal frequency distribution. This method eliminates central tendency and leniency biases. Essay or free form appraisal: this method requires the manager to write a short essay describing each employee’s performance during the rating period. This format emphasizes evaluation of overall performance, based on strength and weakness of employee performance, rather than specific job dimensions. The time involved in writing separate essay about each employee can be formidable. Group appraisal: under this method, a group of appraisers appraises an employee. This group consists of the immediate supervisors of the employee, to other supervisors who have close contact with the employees work, manager or head of the department and consultants. The group appraises the performance of the employee, compared the actual with the standards of performance, find out deviations, discusses the reason therefore, suggest ways for improvements of performance, prepare action plans, study the need for change in the job analysis and standards and recommends change if necessary. Confidential report: assessing the employee’s performance confidentially is a traditional method of performance appraisal. Under this method, superior appraises the performance of the subordinates based on his observation, judgment and intuitions. The superior keeps his judgment and report confidentially. In other words, the superior are not allow the employee to know his report and performance. BEHAVIOURAL METHODS While trait measures various characteristics, behavioral methods measures employee behavioral skill on a continuum. Behavioral checklist method: a  checklist is designed with the list of statements that describe the behavior essential for employee performance. The appraiser checks whether the appraise possess them or not. Employee’s performance is rated based on the behavioral skills that the employee possesses to the total statements. Critical incident method: employee are rated discontinuously, i.e. once in a year or six months under the earlier methods. The performance rated may not reflect real and overall performance as the rater would be serious about the appraisal about two or three weeks before the appraisal. Hence, a continuous appraisal method, i.e. critical incident method was developed. Under this method, the supervisor continuously records the critical incident of the employee performance or behavior relating to all characteristics in a specially designed notebook. The critical incident method has the advantage of being objective because the rater considers the record of the performance rather than the subjective point of opinion. Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS): the BARS method combines elements of the traditional rating scale and critical incident methods. Using BARS, job behavior from critical incidents- effective and ineffective behaviors are described more objectively. This method employs individuals who are familiar with a particular job to identify its major components. They then rank and validate specific behaviors for each of the components. Behavior observation scale (BOS): the appraiser, under this method, measure how frequently each of the behavior has been observed. Appraiser plays the role of observer rather than a judge and provides the feedback to the appraise continuously. Assessment centre: in this approach, individual from various departments are brought together to spend two or three days, working on an individual or group assignment similar to ones they would have been handling when promoted. Observers rank the performance of each participant in order of merit. RESULT METHODS Organizations of contemporary period evaluate employee performance based on accomplishments they achieve rather than based on the behavioral factors/traits. Employee accomplishments include sale turnover, number of units produced, and number of customers served, number of complaints settled and the like. Productivity measures: under the productivity measures of performance appraisal, employees are appraised based on the ratio of output  they turned out to the input they used. The balanced scorecard: it brings the linkage among financial, customer, processes and learning. Learning and people management contribute to the enhancement of internal processes. Internal processes are critical for enhancing customer satisfaction and loyalty. The balanced scorecard can be used to appraise employee performance. The following recommendations ensure the successful application of balanced scorecard to performance management. Human resource accounting: human resource accounting deals with cost and contribution of human resource to the organization. Cost of the employee includes cost of work force planning, training, development, wages etc. employee contribution is the money value of employee service, which can be measured by labour productivity, or value added by human resource. Management by objectives: MBO is a process whereby the superior and subordinate manager of an organization jointly identifies its common goals, define each individual’s major areas of responsibility in terms of results expected of him, and use these measures of guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of its members. SYSTEMS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Establish performance standards Communicate standards/ expectations to employee. Measure actual performance by following the instructions. Adjust the actual performance due to the environmental influence Compare the adjusted performance with that of others and previous Compare the actual performance with standards and find out deviations, if any. Communicate the actual performance to the employee concerned. Suggest changes in job analysis and standards, if necessary. Follow – up performance appraisal report. USES OFPERFORMANCE APPRIASAL Performance appraisal has several uses. The important among them are: Performance improvement: performance feedback allows the employees, manager and personnel specialist to intervene with appropriate actions to improve performance Compensation adjustment: A performance evaluation helps decision-makers determine who should receive pay raises. Many firms grant  part or all of their pay increases and bonuses based upon merit, which is determined mostly through performance appraisal. Placement decisions: promotions, transfers and demotions are usually are based on past or anticipated performance. Often promotions are reward for past performance. Training and development needs: poor performance may indicate the need for retraining. Likewise, good performance may indicate untapped potential that should be developed. Career planning and development: performance feedbacks guide career decision about specific career paths one should investigate. Staffing process deficiencies: good or bad performance implies strength and weakness in the personnel departments staffing procedure. Informational inaccuracies: poor performance may indicate error in job analysis information, human resource plans, or other part of personnel management information system. Reliance on accurate information may led to inappropriate hiring, training, or counseling decisions. Job design errors: poor performance may be a symptom of ill- conceived job design. Appraisals help diagnose these errors. PROBLEMS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The major problem of performance appraisal is- 1. Rating biases Halo effect The error of central tendency The leniency and strictness The recency effect 2. Failure of the superiors in conducting performance appraisal nad post performance appraisal interviews 3. Most part of the appraisal is based on subjectivity 4. Les reliability and validity of the performance appraisal techniques 5. Negative rating affect interpersonal relations and industrial relation system 6. Influence of external environmental factors and uncontrollable internal factors 7. Feedback and post appraisal interview may have a setback on production 8. Relationship between appraisal rates and performance after promotions was not significant 9. Absence of inter –rater reliability

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

A Moral Choice Essay

In the journey of life, we will often face a variety of temptations. However, in the face of these temptations, we should make the right choice. Sometimes, we know the right choice may bring some troubles for us, but in the face of the ethical issues, we had no choices. Obviously, each individual will confront with these situations those need you make a choice, include me. When I was a student in the primary school, once, my school had a fundraiser for the children in poor area in China, so everybody in our school would give a hand. I came back to my home and asked my mother for the money. On the next day in the morning, my mother gave me one hundred yuan and said to me all the money should I donate. I was supervised that my mother gave me so much money. In peacetime she was very frugal and always gave me a little pocket money. And at that time one hundred yuan was really a big sum of money for me. Then I went to school, in the class, I remember my best friend came to my place and said to me that there was a new toy that was very novel and fun, and she asked me whether I would like to buy. Coincidently, I also knew that new toy and I had always wanted to buy. But I found my pocket money could not afford it. If I asked my mother to buy it, she would not agree with me. So at that moment, I came up with an idea. I had one hundred yuan and I could use the money to buy the new toy. The toy cost fifty yuan, if I bought it, I still had the remaining fifty yuan to donate. The donation was not an obligation and my school did not force us to donate. So nobody would care about how much money I had donated. However, I still thought it was a little unethical for me to do that and I hesitated for a long time. Yet, when the donation began, there was a picture full of tender and dark faces emerged in my mind, as if they looked at me with desire. Immediately, I realized that I had no lake of anything compared with the children in these poor areas. I should satisfy with my life and be grateful for any thing my parents has given me. These children in the poor areas really need help. So I gave up the idea just now and dropped the one hundred yuan in the collection box. At that moment, I was vey proud of myself. Though I could not but the toys that I had been waited for, at least, I helped the children who really need help. Further more, from this experience, I thought I had made the right choice in the face of moral test and I knew the importance of helping others. At same time, I could gain much happiness through helping others. I learned a lesson from it. Life likes a marathon. Each player has the possibility to win, each player are your competitors. But if you suddenly appeared in front of two roads, one leading to the home of the path, and the other means that you will embark on the long journey. Also assume that you have already exhausted at this time, which one would you choose? If your answer is the latter, then I want to tell you: When we are faced with a moral choice, be sure to make the right decision!